Comprehensive National Power of a Nation (CNP) like other concepts of social sciences is a multi-defined definition.
Each & every nation-state wants to give its’ own meaning & definition to it with their respective position in World Politics with a clear cut favour for them.
However, among the plethora of definitions the most accepted one is;
Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is the functionality (i.e. workout, activities, how about, exercise or transactions) of a nation/state that ceaselessly pursue its’ strategic objectives on the stage of World Politics with the help of necessary actions for the realization of these objectives / goals.
It also include the capacity of a nation / state to internally motivate & organize its’ people for realization of its strategic goals / objectives.
Thus providing a measuring scale through which the internal rifts & external moves & motifs could be judged & shifted for the national interests / strengths on the world-stage-politics.
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In 1977 Ray S. Cline (1918-1996), both CIA chief & analyst during the Cuban Missile crisis (1962), did first serious research in this direction for measuring power / strength of nations through their Comprehensive National Indexing.
However, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences & Chinese Academy of Military Sciences reshaped it & gave a new foundation & paradigm to it with a more precise & cutting accuracy.
The positions of nations / states in such studies continuously varies from time to time with regard to the variability of the determining factors of Comprehensive National Power (CNP)
National Strategic Resources of CNP;
Michael Porter (born on 23rd May 1947) has elaborated only five major Strategic Resources or measuring stones for the evaluation of a particular business-organizations’ strength, its’ competitiveness & position in relation with other business-organizations
These five major resources of Michael Porter are;
I. Physical → i.e. Rivalry among the existing industry
II. Infrastructure → i.e. The threat of new entrants
III. Human → i.e. The bargaining power of the buyers
IV. Knowledge & Technology → i.e. The threat of substitute products
V. Capital resources → i.e. The bargaining power of the suppliers
However, the National Strategic Resources in International Politics are subdivided into eight main categories with 23 indicators / scales for the approximate calculation of a state / nation Comprehensive National Power (CNP) position in the World Politics.
These eight categories collectively constitute the CNP of nation / state & its’ position in the World Politics. These eight categories are;
1. Economic Resources
2. Natural Resources
3. Capital Resources
4. Knowledge & Technology Resources
5. Governmental Resources
6. Military Resources
6. International Resources
7. Cultural Resources
These categories along with their 23 indicators / scales the classification of nation / states’ CNP is carried out. For our better understanding lets’ elaborate these categories a little bit.
What does the word ‘’ Strategic Resources ‘’ means In International Politics?
‘’ Strategic Resources ‘’ has become rather an elusive term in International Politics with so many uses & connotations that it has almost lost its’ original meaning & purpose for which it had to be used. Everything which is elusive & ambiguous is termed by the each governments’ establishment as ‘’ the strategic resources or assets’’. Anything to be used in future for their strategic manoeuvrings, positive or negative, whatever it may be.
The pin pointing & expressive meaning of the word, strategic resources/ assets, means ‘’ the allocation of your resources for your future use with the clear motif of having an upper hand on your opponents / competitors so much that they are led by you from their nose, to any direction you want to lead them!!!
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The allocation of such resources have two sub-classes.
I. Resources allocated for the very present & immediate cause / threat / danger. That may include from territorial security to safeguarding your diplomatic, political & economic interests.
II. The second part of such resources is utilization for advancing your stature in in the comity of nations. So that you have a clear following behind you.
For gaining these motives the resources / assets allocated by any government are called ‘’ the Strategic Resources’’. The utility of such resources is defined by their use that is for which purpose & direction you are using them.
From defending your territorial boundaries from the immediate foreign aggression to the gradual funding of an insurgency or political position / opponents in your very neighbourhood are all the different tools for protecting your strategic interests.
In ever-changing & volatile world your position could only be retained if you are always ready to change your position with the changing world. Be it the discovery of new markets for your products or alliancing into regional or global organizations for your political, economic & military gains.
Such a whole & grand scenario could only be gained if a state uses his present day position, no matter whatever it may be, as jumping-board for his future success & leverage.
Now lets’ take the # 1 category of CNPs’ eight categories i.e. Economic Resources.
1. Economic Resources into ’the Strategic Resources’.
Economic Resources are an integral part of Strategic Resources, not merely an important one!!
They include cash, men & material, time, technical assistance & so many other things.
The ‘investing’ of economic resources for the strategic purpose is consuming one both in time & also in strategy adaptation. Every government wants to ‘invest’ only in such things that are beneficial to them in future both in output & in cost. Whimsicality may led them to destruction.
The Comparative Ranking of Top Ten Countries of the on the basis of Economic Resources in the year 2020 are;
9. United Kingdom
2. Natural Resources as Strategic Resources.
Natural Resources, as the very name suggest, are all things that occur naturally & are essential for human life & needs. Plants, air, rainfall, sunshine, animals, stone, clay, sand & fossil fuels are some names that come to mind quickly with the word of ‘natural resources’. But the list does not stop here!!!
Difference between Economic & Natural Resources.
Anything that is endowed by Nature is definitely useful for humans. All kind of vegetation, air, sunlight, minerals, fossil fuel, water in form of glaciers, rivers, seas & oceans, all are gift of Nature to humans.
These natural resources are then utilized by men for his benefit & development.
A limestone is just a stone but it is the backbone of Cement Industry. Likewise a writing table is the final finished product of wood!!!!
For a natural resources to be converted into an economic resources it is must that the cost of its extraction / exploration must be less than from its’ final finished product. For example if the cost of natural gas extraction is higher than its’ total available reserves in an area then such extraction / exploration is totally useless & valueless. As it would provide no profit & benefit to the government, people or even to its’ extractors / explorers.
Thus for Strategic purposes only such large & lucrative Natural Resources could be converted into Economic Resources which are long lasting & cost effective. Only then such Economic Resources (i.e. Natural Resources) could be used for Strategic Resources or Purposes.
The Comparative Ranking of Top Ten Countries on the Natural Resources basis in the year 2020 are;
3. Saudi Arabia
3. Use of Capital Resources / Assets in the Strategic Resources.
The Capital Resources or Assets is the availability of cash in national exchequer to start or fund a new enterprise, project or something else.
Their use in the Strategic Resources is very old & typical from the ages. Each & every government tries to boost its’ strategic assets / resources through various means. This may include loan, foreign aids, technical & military assistance, leasing & lending to name a few!!!
It is investing for future with a tacit & understood consent from the receiver or donee that they would support & act as a followers to the giver or donor……
In the year 2020 Top Ten Countries Comparative Ranking on the basis of Capital Resources / Assets are;
3. South Korea
4. Knowledge & Technology use as Strategic Resources.
Technology is the applied use of Knowledge, skills & abilities for resolving human needs that appear to them from time to time. Every age has its’ own technology & the people of that age used their knowledge, technical know-how & available resources to develop & facilitate their lives.
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Each nation in each age that was advanced from other nations in the Technology of the Age has a strong influence upon other nations who had no option but to bow before him. The same phenomena of Knowledge & Technological strength is also the power loci of Comprehensive National Strength (CNP) in the 21st century.
On the basis of Knowledge & Technology Resources, Comparative Ranking of Top Ten Countries in the year 2020 are;
3. South Korea
7. United Kingdom
5. Government Resources/ Assets use for the Strategic Resources.
Anything that is owned by the government is called ‘government resources’. It may be a chair, pencil, cloth or anything else. It may also include lease-gotten- items by the government. It also encompasses taking of personal services of an employee for resolving personal problems at workplace. Such services for resolving-workplace-related-issues may include harassment, bullying, discrimination, performance issues & lack of motivation.
On the basis of Government & Governmental Resources / Assets the Top Ten Countries of the World in 2020 year are;
6. New Zealand
6. Military Resources as the Strategic Resources.
The main & hard-hitting element of the National Strategic Resources is ‘the Military Resources’ of a nation. Civil & armed personnel, military infra-structure, arms & ammunitions of a nation defence system are something that weigh heavily in a nations’ pursuit of Strategic goals.
World Top Ten Countries in the year 2020 with heavy Military Resources are;
7. South Korea
8. United Kingdom
7. International Resources as the Strategic Resources.
International Resources are the resources / assets that belongs to all nations of the World. They are the common assets of all nations. No nation can claim their sovereignty over them. Seas Oceans & Outer Space are its’ examples. Such International Resources are administered by International organizations & establishments.
For example beyond 200km from a country territorial waters that is called ‘ Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)’, all the oceanic / sea waters are termed as the International Water or the Open Ocean that is governed & regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) which issues Conventions from time to time & which are imposed on the local maritime countries through United Nations.
The Top Ten Countries with International Resources in the year 2020 are;
5. United Kingdom
9. Saudi Arabia
10. South Korea
8. Cultural Resources use in the Strategic Resources.
Cultural Resources or assets is an umbrella term that encircles the philosophical & intangible element of human history like religions & philosophies of life.
The tangible or material aspect / phenomena of human life like old relics, ruins & archaeological sites also falls within it. Thus it is a conglomerate of both tangibles & intangibles, of thought & reality, of dream & awakening.
In recent decades it is assumed by almost all World that the protection, development & a prosperous future of mankind is only possible through the recognition & positive utility of this ingredient of Strategic Resources i.e. the Cultural Resources.
The conventional method of protection i.e. military ‘hard’ power, is no longer so fertile & booming as this one. The use of Cultural Resources as ‘Soft Power’ has a greater capacity to way forward than the conventional method of ‘hard military power’.
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The use of only stick & no carrot would lead to nowhere. Likewise mere serving of carrots would give no desired result. A balanced recipe of ‘carrot & stick’ would work far better than the other combinations.
The World Top Ten Countries with Cultural Resources in 2020 are;
To Sum Up;
The evaluation & calculation of a nation / state CNP & its’ positioning in the World Politics are like the students’ class positions in an exam with the most brilliant on the top having the highest score followed by other classmates with different scores & positions among them. If anyone of them resolves & work hard for a higher score than his last terms’ score, he would then have comparatively a good high score on his card in his next term exam result thus becoming a potential competitor for present Top positions- holders.
However, if a student does not work hard & is careless about his studies he would go nowhere but with further failure & degradation.
Scoring weak or bad in a subject or ignoring their importance & value for him would definitely affect his studies & scorecard. A balanced, continuous & managed approach would give him result beyond his imagination!!!!
This classroom analogy is also assuredly holds true for CNPs’ of states / nations in the classroom of World Politics.
Comparing CNP strengths of World powers in the year 2020
|Rank||Economic||Natural||Capital||Knowledge and Technology||Government||Military||International||Cultural|
|1||United States||Russia||Singapore||Japan||Denmark||United States||United States||Italy|
|2||China||United States||Japan||United States||Sweden||Russia||Russia||France|
|3||India||Saudi Arabia||South Korea||South Korea||Norway||China||China||Greece|
|7||Indonesia||Brazil||Australia||United Kingdom||Netherlands||South Korea||Japan||Mexico|
|9||United Kingdom||Iraq||Netherlands||China||Germany||Turkey||Saudi Arabia||Thailand|